Projecct "Mangrove Awareness Programme"



I Project Summary
B. Objectives :

1. To create awareness among common masses
2. Involve school students
3. Impart theory and practical knowledge regarding mangroves
4. To organize public lectures by the experts
5. To publish mangrove booklets for students

C. Project Submitted to :

The Member Secretary
C/o DST, Govt. of Goa
Opp. Saligao Seminary
Saligao Goa

D. Project submitted by :

Executive Secretary
Mangrove Society of India
48, Nirmiti, Sagar Society
Dona Paula, Goa 403 004
Tel ; 0832 2452263
Mobile : 09423883046
E-mail :

E. Duration : Two years

F. Total Budget ; Rs. 10.00 Lakhs

1st year Rs. 5.00 Lakhs
2nd year Rs. 5.0 Lakhs

Proposal for grant of financial assistance
Title of the project: Awareness campaign amongst the student community regarding mangrove conservation.

Name and address of Principal Investigator:

Dr A. G. Untawale,
NIO Scientists (Retd.),
Mangrove Society of India
48, Nirmiti, Saga Society,
Dona Paula, Goa 403 004.

Other participants of the project:

  1. Dr Sayeeda Wafar,
    NIO Scientists (Retd.),
    Oceanis Coop Hsg. Society,
    500/1/A2, Nr. GMC,
    Bambolim, Goa 403 202.
  2. Shri P. V. Savant,
    Chief Conservator of Forest (Retd.),
    A & N Islands (PortBlair),
    H.No. 1066, Alto Torda,
    Porvorim, Bardez, Goa
  3. Dr Vinod K. Dhargalkar
    NIO Scientists (Retd.),
    Oceanis Coop Hsg. Society,
    500/1/A9, Nr. GMC,
    Bambolim, Goa 403 202.

Other experts to be involved in the project

  1. Dr. T.G. Jagtap
    Senior Scientist
    NIO, Dona Paula
  2. Dr. Baban Ingole
    Senior Scientist (Marine Biology)
    NIO, Dona Paula, Goa
  3. Shri V.T. Thomas
    Conservator of Forest (Retd.)

Work proposed to be undertaken:

Mangrove Society of India,
48, Nirmiti, Saga Society,
Dona Paula, Goa 403 004.

Designation of the official to receive the financial grant
Executive Secretary,
Mangrove Society of India
48, Nirmiti, Saga Society,
Dona Paula, Goa 403 004.

Total cost of the project : Rs. 10 Lakhs.

1st Year Rs. 5 Lakhs
2nd Year rs. 5 Lakhs

Duration of the project: Two Years

The term “mangrove” refers to an assemblage of tropical trees and shrubs that grow in the zones that are frequently inundated with salt water due to tidal activity of seas and oceans. Mangroves act as Buffer Zone between the land and sea and protect the coast against erosion. The important aspects of mangrove ecosystem is that it is self maintaining, self repairing, most productive, renewable and sustainable provided that the ecological processes governing this ecosystem are maintained.

Significance of mangroves

• Mangrove forests are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems.
• Mangroves form very important part of the marine food chain and provide a variety of food for microorganisms, crustaceans, molluscs and refuge from predators for many species.
• Mangroves help to recycle nutrients in coastal waters as large amount of the leaf litter is shed, being dropped and then broken down by bacteria and fungi which are made available to the food chain of aquatic animals.
• Tides and currents exchange nutrients with the mangroves, enriching nearby ecosystems such as terrestrial wetlands, salt marshes, sea grass beds, coral reefs etc. and also the off shore waters.
• Mangroves provide breeding grounds for fish and other marine animals. It constitutes a unique habitat for wild animals and provides nesting, breeding places for birds.
• Mangroves are also a source of a vast range of wood and non-wood forest products including timber, fuel wood, charcoal, fodder, honey, pulp, tannin, medicine and thatch etc.
• This ecosystem has a very large unexplored potential for natural products useful for medicinal purposes & also for salt production, apiculture, fisheries products, fuel and fodder, etc.
• Mangroves also help to control pollution, including excess amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous, petroleum products, and halogenated compounds. Mangroves prevent these contaminants from polluting the ocean waters through a process called rhizofiltration
• Mangroves protect coastland by absorbing the energy of storm-driven waves and wind action, creating an effect of a natural breakwater that helps stop erosion, preventing a great deal of property damage and sometimes even human death.
• Mangroves also help to trap debris and silt, contributing to soil formation and stabilizing the coastline.
• Mangroves protect the climate by absorbing carbon dioxide and reducing the amount of greenhouse gases. All in all, researchers estimate the world's mangrove forests provide human communities with many billions of dollars worth of free services.
• Mangroves also provide opportunities for education, scientific research, eco- tourism and socio-economic studies. It is essential to systematically conserve the biodiversity in the mangrove ecosystem and manage well for the use of mankind.

Objectives of the project:

1) To popularise the mangrove conservation amongst the student community.
2) To create trained and technically sound man power.
3) To spread the knowledge of mangrove conservation.
4) Publication of popular book cum field guide on mangroves.

Profile of Mangrove Society of India:
Mangrove Society of India (MSI) is a non-profit and non-political organization that has been
working for protection, conservation and sustainable use of mangroves. MSI was established in 1990 and registered under Societies Act Govt. of India with registration no. 90/Goa/1990. Dr S. Z. Qasim, eminent Biologist and Oceanographer is the Chairman of MSI. It has about 150 active members spread across the coastal states of India. Many of its members have actively worked on different aspects of mangroves and they are consultants/advisers to various Govt. agencies and private corporate houses. Some are on the national and International mangrove committees. MSI has affiliation with NGO’s, research and Govt. institutions, corporate houses, stakeholders etc. from Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu etc.

To protect and conserve Indian mangroves by adopting environment friendly, scientifically sound techniques/methodologies

The Mission shall be to assist other NGOs, Govt. agencies, research and Govt. Institutes, organizations and Citizens to build up their capacities for protection and conservation of Indian mangroves.


• MSI will act as watchdog and advise Govt. organizations, institutions, corporate houses, stakeholders in matters concerning the conservation of mangroves.
• MSI will be particularly interested to train younger generations and will create awareness amongst them to conserve and protect mangroves.
• To organise alliances and networks with partners to develop an appropriate
developmental perspective to conserve mangroves.
• To organise issue-based Forums to achieve appropriate solutions to mangrove protection.
• Capacity building of NGOs, corporate houses, Govt. institutions, stakeholders etc. by providing necessary training for their personnel.
• To assist and coordinate activities pertaining to mangrove conservation.
• To play an active role in ensuring the participation of local people in making decisions in respect of mangroves.
• To provide necessary information in respect of mangroves by publishing books, booklets, bulletins, newsletters, leaflets and posters as well as issue-based articles in newspapers and periodicals.

Review of the mangrove status:
The total area under mangrove cover along the Indian coast is estimated at 4460 km2. Mangroves are wide spread; the Gangetic Sundarbans is the largest mangroves formation occupying an area of 2067 km2. Mangroves of the A&N Islands are the second largest and other prominent mangrove formations are found at Pichavaram and Puthupet and in the deltaic areas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna rivers on the east coast, while, the coastal areas of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala on the west coast have fringing mangroves.

In India, mangroves in many places have been highly degraded. According to the Government of India (1987), India lost 40 percent of its mangrove area in the last
century. The National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) recorded a decline of 7000 ha of mangroves in India within the six-year period from 1975 to 1981. In Andaman and Nicobar Islands about 22 400 ha of mangroves were lost between 1987 and 1997 (Table 1).

Table 1: Area distribution of mangroves in India (thousand ha)

Causes of mangrove destruction
Land development such as agriculture, aquaculture, industrial purpose, pollution, has contributed to extensive damage of mangroves in many areas along the Indian coasts for last so many years. This trend of degradation is continuing at greater extent in recent times along the coastal states of India. Coastal mangroves have been cleared for human inhabitation in many areas like Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Gujarat, Goa etc. Mumbai is one of the best examples for the mangrove destruction due to urbanization. In the largest deltaic region of the world existing between India and Bangladesh, 1, 50,000 ha of mangroves were destroyed during the past 100 years and reclaimed for agriculture. A large scale destruction of mangroves for aquaculture purpose along the east coast of India in states like Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Kolkata and Andhra Pradesh was carried out two decades ago.

Mangrove habitats serve as a dumping ground for solid wastes and for discharging the effluents from various sources. The best examples of this are major coastal cities like Kolkata and Mumbai are adversely affected by industrial and domestic pollution. Oil or gas exploration, petroleum production, and accidents by large oil tankers cause significant damage to mangrove ecosystems. There have been more than 70 cases of Oil spills along the Indian coast between Gujarat and Vishakhapatnam since 1970. The spilled oil reaches mangroves causing defoliation of trees, mortality of all sessile and benthic organisms and contamination of many waterfowls. Once the mangrove forest is affected by oil pollution, it will take a long time of at least 10 years for recovery of the mangrove forest.

It is suggested that a rise in mean sea-level may be the most important factor influencing the future distribution of mangroves but that the effect will vary depending on the local rate of sea-level rise and the availability of sediment to support reestablishment of the mangroves. It is necessary to limit coastal development and allow mangrove forests to spread inland. It is suggested that policymakers to rehabilitate former mangrove areas by planting young trees, and to create new mangrove habitat. The socio-economic impacts of global warming on mangrove ecosystems may include increased risk of flooding, increased erosion of coast lines, saline intrusion and increased storm surges.
Mangrove afforestation programmes.

Mangrove forest destruction and depletion of its natural resources pose one of the most serious social problems in India. The problem is particularly observed in the west coast where the extent of the remaining mangrove forests is only about 40,000 ha (total area of Indian mangroves is about 350,000 ha). Conservation measures and afforestation are therefore essential. Activities sponsored by the UNDP/UNESCO Regional mangrove Project have greatly contributed to mangrove awareness in India. It can be said that the mangrove afforestation experiments in Gujrat, Goa and Maharashtra in which the Al-Gurm Research Centre was consulted are one of the results of the UNESCO project.
Situation in Goa.

Out of Goa’s total land area of 370000 ha, the mangrove area is 500 ha having declined sharply from a recorded 20 000 ha in 1987. Some 178 ha of the best mangrove area at Chorao, Goa has been declared as Reserved Forest under the Indian Forest Act1927 to protect and conserve the mangrove forests. Subsequently, in 1988, this area was declared as Sir Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Afforestation work to restore degraded mangrove areas started in Goa in 1985-1986. Three government agencies assisted the mission, i.e., the NIO at Goa, Forest Department of Goa, and Social Forestry Circle of Maharashtra State. By the end of 1996-1997 the programme had covered 876 ha (Forest Department of Goa statistics).

A five-year Mangrove Management Plan for Goa was prepared in 1991-1992 and implemented with financial assistance from the Government of India, and 100 ha of mangroves were planted each year as planned. A second five-year Management Plan is currently under implementation. However, recently, large mangrove areas along the Goa coast are being indiscriminately and illegally reclaimed for developmental purposes and no action is being initiated. It is felt that except for few people there is no overall awareness about the importance of mangroves amongst the local people at large.

In present day happenings, people’s participation in any national or societal programme is a must and will be effective in long run to achieve the goals. In view of this, MSI feels that conservation efforts should start at root level; hence, student community along the coastal belt should be made aware of the mangrove conservation. In order to restore and conserve whatever left of Goa mangroves and to create awareness amongst the young generation and to develop trained man power for mangrove conservation this project has been proposed.

Work plan:

  1. Survey will be carried out along the Mandovi - Zuari estuaries to identify sites for taking up mangrove afforestration programme.
  2. Five Schools in the vicinity of the proposed afforestration sites will be contacted for participation in this programme.
  3. Selection of the ten students from each school from std. VII to IX will be done with the help of Principal/Head master of the respective schools.
  4. A teacher representing each five school will be identified and made in charge of each group of 10 students.
  5. Students will be trained by giving lectures, demonstration and will be exposed to mangroves by providing literature, notes, brochures, films, videos etc.
  6. They will be taken to field and they will acquaint with different species of mangroves.
  7. A nursery of 250 m 2 area will be made at the each five sites to raise mangrove seedlings.
  8. Mangrove plantation will be carried out in 1000 m 2 area at each of the five sites.
  9. Each school will have one nursery (250 m 2) and plantation site (1000 m 2) that will be looked after and managed by the respective school students. So total nursery area will be 1250 m2 and plantation area will be 5000 m 2.
  10. Seeds of the mangrove plants such as Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, Sonneratia alba, S. officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, B. parviflora, Kandelia candel, Avicenia officinalis, A. marina etc. will be collected from mangrove habitats as per availability and seedlings will be raised in the nursery.
  11. Attempt will be made to introduce Xylocarpus sp. which is not found in Goa at some of these sites.
  12. Demonstration will be given to students to raising mangrove nursery and plantation techniques.
  13. They will be thought to monitor the progress of the plantation and record various other parameters that are important to raise nursery and plantation.
  14. Writing of the final report.

Budget Estimates

Sr. No
Heads of expenditure
I st year
II nd Year

Salaries and wages

i) Honorarium to experts including PI @ Rs 4000/- per month for four months in a year for four persons.




ii) Project asst. Two @ Rs 5000/- per month for four months in a year
iii) Field Asst. Two @2000/- per month for four months in a year.




iv) Remuneration to student @ Rs 300/-per month for four months in a year for 50 students (10 each from 5 schools).
v) Remuneration to teacher @ Rs. 1000/- per month for four months in a year, one teacher each from five schools
Boat hire charges
Travel and Transport for resource persons and students/teacher to go to the mangrove sites etc.
Consumables - like stationary, plastic bags (different size), shovels, buckets, ink cartridges and other miscellaneous items etc. for each school.
ii) Nursery material for each of the five sites @ Rs 6,000/- per sites
Contingency ; i)Printing brochures, booklets on mangroves etc.
ii) Photography, video recording,
Xeroxing, banners, etc.
iii) Mangrove Seed collection
vi) Plantation - Rs.6,000/- per site I yr. and Rs. 3,000/- II yr.
v) Computer charges
vi) Exhibition, workshops etc. 35,000/-
Sub Total
Over head charges 15 %
  Total Rs.